Summary of EA programme

The 9 key-partners of the EA in Indonesia, decided at the inception workshop (February 2011, Punca, Indonesia) that the EA country programme is focusing on 3 regions and 4 thematic focuses.

3 regions:

  • - Sumatra (Lampung, South Sumatra, Jambi and Riau),
  • - Kalimantan and
  • - Papua

where the livelihoods of rural communities are affected by ecosystem degradation resulting from expansion of palm oil and pulp&paper plantations, (illegal) logging and mining, unsustainable land and water resources management.

4 thematic focuses:

  • - Land tenure rights;
  • - Expansion palm oil palm plantations;
  • - Mainstreaming sustainable livelihood initiatives and models;
  • - Merauke Integrated Food & Energy Estate – MIFEE as example of landgrab.

Under these thematic focuses joint lobby strategies are developed; in the field-projects all focus themes will be tackled.               

The EA field projects are empowering local communities by securing their tenure rights (in most projects through Hutan Desa permits) and developing sustainable livelihoods (together with technical and management trainings). Most of the 9 key-partners implement the projects through local NGOs (eg. In Sumatra WBH, YMI, YGB, YKWS; in Kalimantan the regional Walhi chapters). Based on the experiences in the field projects, joint lobby and advocacy efforts seek to influence Indonesian policies.

Key EA-partners & their field projects projects (2011 - 2015):


Project title

Contribution to Thematic Focus



1 Tenure rights

2 Oil Palm

3 Livelihoods

4 Land Grab




Strengthening rights and livelihoods in the critical ecosystems of central Sumatra

Hutan desa permits

Prevention OP + P&P plantation

Ecosystem-poverty linkages

Prevention OP + P&P plantation


Increasing Community Welfare through Participative Forest Management at Batanghari Basin

Hutan Desa permits

Prevention OP + P&P plantation

NTFPs + rubber

Prevention OP + P&P plantation


Replicating Community Based Forest Management and River Basin Council/Forum to Promote Equitable and Sustainable natural resource management in Kampar Basin.

Hutan Desa permits

Prevention OP + P&P plantation

Integrated Basin Management

Prevention OP + P&P plantation


Promoting Ecosystem Carrying Capacity and Services Based on Local Knowledge

Secured tenure permits

Prevention OP + P&P plantation


Prevention OP + P&P plantation








Upscaling, sustainable, community-based forest livelihoods in Kalimantan

Hutan Desa  & eco-cultural zone procedures started

Prevention OP  plantation


Prevention OP + P&P plantation

Sawit Watch

To enhance capacities of CSOs and influence policy for better management of ecosystem


greener trade chain

Village action plans

Prevention OP + P&P plantation








Integrate sustainable peatland & mangrove management approaches in land-use planning

Hutan Desa permits

Prevention OP plantation


Prevention OP plantation








Empowerment of Papua Customary Peoples for sustainable natural resources management

Provincial Special Regulation on Natural Resource Management

Prevention OP + P&P plantation

Eco-forestry + cacao

Prevention OP + P&P plantation


Sustainable community forest management

2500 HA landuse plan

Prevention OP + P&P plantation


Prevention OP plantation

Based on the experiences in the field projects, joint lobby and advocacy efforts seek to influence Indonesian policies.

Joint advocacy groups

Thematic focus

Group members


Land tenure rights

Warsi (lead), Walhi, Telapak, Samdhana

  • License Procedure for Hutan Desa and Community Forestry is revised to be more simple and shortened from 27 steps to 15 steps at Forestry Department of Indonesian Republic
  • Documents review and analyze the need for facilitation support management institution of Hutan Desa and Hutan Kemasyarakatan can be arranged.
  • Financial support from National Development Budget is available for facilitation of Community Based-Forest Management at the provincial and district levels.

Expansion palm oil palm plantations

Sawit Watch (lead), WI IP, Yadupa

  • Reduced direct deforestation and degradation of forest and peatlands
  • Greener economic options in inclusive and sustainable development strategies in palm oil sector by promoting Best Agricultural Practices

Mainstreaming Sustainable Livelihood Initiatives and Models (SLIM)

NTFP EP (lead), Telapak, Walhi, Warsi, YGB, YMI, NTFP, Samdhana, pt.PPMA, YKWS

  • Increased consumers patronizing SLIMs products and increased media coverage of SLIMs
  • National government parties are including SLIMs in their plans and programs and are exploring collaboration with community and CSO partners

Merauke Integrated Food & Energy Estate – MIFEE as example of land grab

Walhi (lead), Yadupa, Sawit Watch, pt.PPMA

  • Indigenous peoples are organized and represented in relation to the issue of MIFEE
  • Revised MIFEE Policy and MP3EI to create a protection mechanism against land conversion that threatens local livelihoods and ecosystems are valuable in Papua


Main background facts to the EA interventions

Forest facts - Indonesia’s forest land comprises 60 % of the country’s land area, which makes it the third largest area of tropical rainforest in the world. - 133 million hectares, or 70% of the land is classified as Forest Estate and managed by Ministry of Forestry; adat forests are not recognised and are claimed as state land. - 15 million hectares of forests, even primary forests, are outside the area classified as Forest Estate. At the same time, there is 26 million hectares of non-forested land inside Forest Estate. - Deforestation around 1.17 million ha per year; main driver: export-led agricultural expansion incl. oil palm plantations. - Already 70 million hectares of tropical forest has been lost or degraded. - GHG emissions: 3rd highest in the world, 85% stems from land use activities (fires and forest clearing). Oil palm facts - Indonesia has 11.5 million hectares under oil palm. - Target for expansion: 29 million hectares, of which 10 million in Kalimantan, 6 million in Papua . - Most oil palm plantations are managed through state-mediated leaseholds for plantations and estates with smallholder schemes. - Malaysian conglomerates have a majority ownership in approximately two-thirds of companies acquiring land for oil palm in Indonesia. - At least 663 conflicts between communities and oil palm plantations over access to natural resources. Livelihood facts - Significant areas of what Indonesia’s Department of Forestry defines as the “Forest Zone” are in fact community-planted agroforests (fruit, resin producing and timber trees), agricultural lands or grasslands. - Millions of people depend on the forest and forest commodities for their livelihood without any recognition of access and/or use of the natural resources. - 33,000 villages within or around Forest Estate, seen as illegal because they live on state land - The Gini Ratio of land distribution is increasing from 0.64 (1983), to 0.67 (1993) to 0.72 (2003). A Gini ratio in excess of 0.6 implies a very uneven land distribution. - Landless people ejected from concession areas, infringe upon nature parks / protected areas to make agricultural fields. - In 2012, 91,968 people from 315 communities have been victimized in conflicts over natural resources and land (HUMA 2012) Legal framework - Moratorium: the Government of Norway has agreed to make contributions to the amount of US$ 1 billion based on Indonesia’s performance; * In May, 2011, Indonesia’s Presidential Instruction 10/2011 (PI) established a two year moratorium on issuing new leases and concessions over those primary forests and peat lands that are not already subject to leases or concessions together with PIBIB, Indicative Map for Suspension of New Licenses on Forest Use and Forest Allocation Changes. * Two months later, the Ministry of Forestry (MoF) released Indicative Moratorium Maps (IMM), covering 43.3 million hectares of primary forests and peat lands, intended to facilitate implementation of the PI. * The moratorium’s exceptions for existing concessions result in 3.5 million ha of primary and peat forests inside the IMM not being protected. - MP3EI, Master Plan of Indonesian Economic Development Acceleration, to create six economic corridors across the archipelago. Four of them, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua are projected as areas which will produce raw and industrial materials, including oil palm. - UKP4, President’s Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight.

Geographical and thematic focus areas

Land tenure rights
Mainstreaming sustainable livelihood initiatives and models;
Expansion palm oil palm plantations
LaND GRAB - Merauke Integrated Food & Energy Estate – MIFEE